And your advantage of scale can be an informational advantage. If I go to some remote place, I may see Wrigley chewing gum alongside Glotz's chewing gum. Well, I know that Wrigley is a satisfactory product wheres I don't know anything about Glotz's. So if one is forty cents and the other is thirty cents, am I going to to take something I don't know and put it in my mouth - which is a pretty personal place, after all - for a lousy dime?

So, in effect, Wrigley, simply by being so well known, has advantages of scale - what you might call an informational advantage.

Another advantage of scale comes from psychology. The psychologist use the term "social proof." We are all influenced - subconsciously and, to some extent, consciously - by what we see others do and approve. Therefore, if everybody's buying something, we think it's better. We don't like to be the one guy who's out of step.

Again, some of this is at a subconscious level, and some of it isn't. Sometimes, we consciously and rationally think, "Gee, I don't know much about this. They know more than I do. Therefore, why shouldn't I follow them?"

The social proof phenomenon, which comes right out of psychology, gives huge advantages to scale - for example, with very wide distribution, which of course is hard to get. One advantage of Coca-Cola is that it's available almost everywhere in the world.

Well, suppose you have a little soft drink. Exactly how do you make it available all over the Earth? The worldwide distribution setup - which is slowly won by a big enterprise - gets to be a huge advantage.... And if you think about it, once you get enough advantages of that type, it can become very hard for anybody to dislodge you.

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